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Lecture Notes

UMass Philosophy 110: Introduction to Logic

Spring 2017 – Tuesdays and Thursdays 1:00–2:15pm in Thompson 106

Prof. Kevin C. Klement

Course description and goals

An introduction to symbolic logic, including sentential and predicate logic. Its purpose is to familiarize you with certain formal methods for representing and evaluating arguments and reasoning. These methods can be used not only for philosophy, but for any subject matter. Like mathematics, the methods you will learn are highly abstract, formal and symbolic. If math can be tricky for you, be prepared to devote extra time to this course. This is an analytical reasoning (R2) course.

Contact information

Prof. Klement’s office is South College E319. Office hours are Wednesdays and Fridays 10–11am and by appointment. Email:

Lecture notes (interactive)

Unit 1 Lecture Notes (January 24th – February 16th)
Unit 2 Lecture Notes (February 21st – March 23rd)
Unit 3 Lecture Notes (March 28th – April 27th)


The website for this course is located at If it is easier to remember, the URL redirects there as well. Course enrollees will be emailed a login and password for this site. There you can find interactive lecture notes, homework exercises, check your grades, and more.


The textbook for this course is Gary M. Hardegree’s Symbolic Logic: A First Course. You can download the 2nd edition of this text from his website here. Or login to get the latest version. You can also download the rules of derivation summary chart (PDF; 42KB). You can download a PDF of this text from our website.

Requirements and grading

Your final grade in the course will be determined by your scores on the following, each of which is worth a maximum of 100 points:

Grade scale
380–400 pts. = A
360–379 pts. = A−
340–359 pts. = B+
320–339 pts. = B
300–319 pts. = B−
280–299 pts. = C+
260–279 pts. = C
240–259 pts. = C−
220–239 pts. = D+
200–219 pts. = D
0–199 pts. = F
  1. Points earned for the online “credit exercises”
  2. Unit 1 exam
  3. Unit 2 exam
  4. Unit 3 exam A
  5. Unit 3 exam B
  6. Unit 3 exam C

Your final grade is based on the four highest of the above six scores. The lowest two are dropped, whatever they are. Therefore, your grade is based on a score out of 400 (see scale to the right).

Five of the six are exam scores. The Unit 1 and Unit 2 exams, and Unit 3 exam A will be administered in class, at the end of each of these units. The Unit 3 exams B and C will be given together during the final exam period, and will cover the same material as Unit 3 exam A.

You can also earn up to 100 points from online exercises. These are found on the course website along with the rest of the homework and are marked as “credit exercises” or “CE”.

A missed exam counts as zero points. If you are happy with your grade based on the credit exercises and first three exams, you may elect not to take Unit 3 Exams B and C. If you are not happy with this initial grade, you may attempt to do better by taking these two additional exams. It is not a good idea to skip earlier exams or neglect the credit exercises, especially since you can work on them until all possible points are earned.

Homework exercises

Recommended exercises are listed for nearly every class period. These fall into three categories: (1) textbook exercises, (2) practice exams and (3) credit exercises.

Textbook exercises and practice exams do not count directly towards your grade, but it is nonetheless imperative to gain experience and practice with the kinds of problems you will encounter on the exams. The textbook exercises can be found at the end of each chapter of the textbook, and are given designations such as “1A” which means Chapter 1, Exercise A. Answers to them are also given in the book so you can check your work. However, I have also created online versions of them if you prefer to do them on the computer, and have the computer check your answers. (This is especially helpful for those problems where there are multiple correct answers, since the book lists only one.) Practice exams are only available online, but there is no harm in doing them on paper if you prefer.

“Credit exercises” are a new and experimental feature this year. To get credit for them, you must log in to the course website and complete them there. Unlike the other online exercises, you cannot always check each problem one by one, but the computer will tell you how many you have right. You may work on them as long as you like until you get every question right. There are 10 sets of “credit exercises”, each of which is worth up to 10 points, for up to 100 total points maximum, which can be used as if it were an exam score. These must be completed by the time of the next exam after they are assigned for points to be awarded.

It is recommended that you do the online exercises on a computer rather than a smaller portable device. Use an up-to-date browser: Chrome, Chromium or Firefox is recommended. Do not use an older version of Internet Explorer.

Click here to visit the homework exercises page

Academic honesty

Academic honesty is defined in the University Academic Regulations document (p. 6), available at Plagiarism and cheating are serious offenses that strike at the very heart of academic life, and will result in serious penalties, including minimally (but not limited to) receiving an F in the course.


Common courtesy demands that you come to class on time, and refrain from leaving early without special permission. Cell phones must be turned off for the duration of class.

I would like to hear from anyone who has a disability and may require special accommodations regarding exam-taking, note-taking or similar. Please obtain the appropriate paperwork from Disability Services and inform me far enough ahead of time to make the appropriate arrangements.


Subject to change.

Day Material Exercises
Tu Jan 24Course introduction
Th Jan 26Chap. 1, §§1–91A, 1B, 1C
Tu Jan 31Chap. 2, §§1–112A, 2B, CE1.1
Th Feb 2Chap. 2, §§12–13; Chap. 3, §§1–53A, 3B, 3C
Tu Feb 7Chap. 4, §§1–154A, 4B, CE1.2
Th Feb 9Chap. 4, §§16–254C, 4D
Tu Feb 14Unit 1 ReviewCE1.3, Practice Exam 1
Th Feb 16— Unit 1 Exam —
Tu Feb 21Chap. 5, §§1–85B
Th Feb 23Chap. 5, §§9–105C, CE2.1
Tu Feb 28Chap. 5, §115D
Th Mar 2Chap. 5, §§12–145E, 5F, CE2.2
Tu Mar 7Chap. 5, §§15–165G
Th Mar 9Chap. 5, §§17–205H, CE2.3
Mar 13–17Spring break. No class.
Tu Mar 21Unit 2 ReviewPractice Exam 2
Th Mar 23— Unit 2 Exam —
Tu Mar 28Chap. 6, §§1–126A, 6B, 6C, 6D
Th Mar 30Chap. 6, §§13–196E, 6F, 6G, 6H, CE3.1
Tu Apr 4Chap. 7, §§1–127A, 7B, 7C, 7D, 7E
Th Apr 6Chap. 8, §§1–78A, 8B, CE3.2
Tu Apr 11Chap. 8, §§8–108C, 8D
Th Apr 13Chap. 8, §§11–128E, 8F
Tu Apr 18No class. University follows Monday class schedule.
Th Apr 20Chap. 8, §§13–148G, 8H, CE3.3
Tu Apr 25Unit 3 ReviewPractice Exam 3
Th Apr 27— Unit 3 Exam A —
Tu May 2ReviewCE3.4
We May 10— Unit 3 Exams B and C — (10:30am–12:30pm, Thompson 106)

© 2017 Kevin C. Klement